They found that such an increase would result in a 6.
Increased Demand for U.S. Agricultural Exports Would Likely Lead to More U.S. Jobs
The growth in export volume is smaller than the increase in export demand because the demand stimulus is partially offset by an increase in export prices. Another finding was that total U. By apportioning the national results to the groups of metro and nonmetro counties within each State, the researchers were able to conduct a regional analysis of the export-employment relationship. For total nonmetro employment, 39 of the 47 States with nonmetro counties experienced nonmetro job growth, with 26 States seeing nonmetro job growth above 0.
According to recent information provided by the government, the trade balance at the end of reached minus 12 billion US dollars. This is the largest trade deficit in recent Polish history.
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Polish exports slowed down in the years and , mainly due to economic recession in Western Europe. At the same time imports increased as a result of Poland's growing integration into the world economy and growing domestic consumption. Exports strongly recovered in the period in line with European recovery.
These tendencies prove that Poland's economy is not closed anymore. Since , there has been a systematic increase in the trade of agro-food products. The share of agro-food exports in total exports decreased from The same tendency occurred in the imports; the share of agro-food imports dropped from Comparing official data on international trade, one has to take into consideration very important non-registered, cross-border trade, especially between Poland, Germany, Russia and the Czech Republic. We can assume that 10 percent of the cross-border trade is attributed to agro-food trade.
Despite rapid growth in trade, the integration of Poland with the world market is still relatively low. The share of Polish exports in world exports is about 0. The value of exports per capita is still very low compared to other European countries. The European Union is still the major trade partner of Poland.
The share of the European Union both in exports and imports remains about 55 percent. There has been a declining trend in the trade between Poland and the European Union in recent years. This trend also shows the changes in values.
1. The issue
After the break-up of the Soviet Union in , there was a drastic reduction in the trade with the FSU. The share of Polish trade with FSU was reduced to less than 10 percent. One has to remember than until the Soviet Union was Poland's major trade partner. In early s, the Soviet Union was the almost exclusive trade partner for Poland.
Polish society was against any trade with the Soviet Union. The society believed that trade with the Soviet Union was unfair, unjust. There is some evidence that society was right to some extent e. These unfair low prices for Polish exports were somehow regulated by N.
Khrushchiev, and in , Poles still remembered the times of exploitation. It is interesting that the Soviet society believed that the Soviet Union supported all communist countries, including Poland via trade agreements. The Russian people believed that that they had to pay a contribution to keep the communist system running in other countries.
All of this created special values, and led to unpleasant relationships between Poles and Russians. Poles believed that trade with the Soviet Union led to worsening their standard of living.
Globalization's effects on world agricultural trade, –
Similar beliefs were held on the Russian side. The quality of exported goods within Comecon countries was extremely low. The best quality products were from Yugoslavia and East Germany. After liberalisation in , trade with the Soviet Union decreased dramatically. The solidarity government went along with society's values and beliefs.
At that time there was an official policy of the state to minimise trade relations with the Soviet Union. This policy has changed since The figures below illustrate the relations with the Soviet Union and Former Soviet Union countries in agro-food trade Table 3. In the years and , the share of the FSU countries in total agro-food exports was 28 and 31 percent, respectively.
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Now, nobody in Poland talks about unfair trade with Russians. Poles want profitable export business irrespective of the nation buying the goods. In their business they do not pay attention to history and bad experiences. Money is the key value for them. Another important issue is the competitiveness of the Polish agro-food sector. Competitiveness is a very complex and dynamic issue.
The rapid transformation of the Polish economy and changes in the world's economy are, for example, resulting both in a gradual rise of domestic input prices and changes in price relations. Some factors often noted for Poland's competitiveness in agro-food products are still low costs of labour and land. They have a significant influence on costs of farm products, as raw materials for the food processing industry. As already mentioned, competitiveness is a dynamic process influenced by many factors.
The most important are: A majority of Poles believe that Polish agro-food trade is competitive on the international markets, not only because of low costs of manufacturing, but also because of special taste, good quality, specific methods of production e. Also international trade has a positive influence on the competitiveness of Polish agriculture. It has forced our producers to compete both in domestic and foreign markets. This leads to the improvement of the quality of products, better preparation of products for sale packaging , and enlargement of the products offered for trade variety.
Increased imports have had a significant impact on consumers, who now have better access to new products, a larger variety and higher quality products. The Polish currency zloty exchange rate to foreign currency, especially the dollar, is particularly important for the competitiveness of Polish international trade, and agro-food trade as well.
One has to remember that about 45 percent of transactions in Polish international trade are made in US dollars. Thus, appreciation of Polish zloty against the US dollar leads to a decrease of Polish exports. Such a situation existed in The quality of Polish products is still not very high, making it extremely difficult to compete within European Union countries. This applies mostly to industrial products e. We must make every effort to retain this leading position. This will only be possible if we continue our efforts in the areas of knowledge development and innovation.
There are some exemplary innovative farms in the Netherlands. For instance, four of the largest plant seed producers are based in the Netherlands. The Netherlands is also a leader when it comes to the export of milking robots. These are all examples of innovations in which the rest of the world is enormously interested. The Dutch agricultural trade mainly focuses on countries within the European Union. In , more than 20 billion euros 25 percent of Dutch agricultural exports went to Germany, making it our main trading partner.
Belgium, the United Kingdom, France and Italy respectively account for Within Europe, the Netherlands mainly exports tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, meat, fish, dairy and eggs. Flowers and plants are in great demand throughout the world. The Netherlands exports over 8 billion euros worth of these products.